ISSN 2413-2322 (Online)
ISSN 2221-1055 (Print)
UDS: 631.415:631.44:552.524 DOI: https://doi.org/10.32317/2221-1055.202104040
Економіка агропромислового виробництва
Chemical reclamation of acid soils: organizational and economic measures and modern technological solutions / Khodakivska O.V., Hladunenko R.V., Korchynska S.H., Tkachuk L.P. // Ekonomika APK. - 2021. - № 4 - P. 40
The purpose of the article is to reveal the current state of acid soils in Ukraine and to offer organizational and economic measures and modern effective technological solutions for their chemical reclamation. Research methods. The research was based on general scientific and economic research methods, scientific works of Ukrainian and foreign scientists on issues related to expanded reproduction of soil fertility and their chemical reclamation. Analytical and statistical tools and empirical approach allowed to determine the benefits of acid soils liming and calculate the economic effect of organizational and economic measures and technological solutions. The abstract-logical approach allowed to develop recommendations on reclamation ways for acid soils with the usage of modern technologies and organisational measures, as well as to formulate appropriate proposals and conclusions. Research results. It has been proved that one of the important directions for increasing the fertility of acid soils is liming. Economic evaluation of the efficiency of soil liming shows that the costs of its implementation are recouped by yield increases and contribute to improving the quality of agricultural products. Despite the high environmental efficiency of liming, the volume and quality of these works in recent years do not meet actual needs of agriculture. Thus, in 2019, the area of limed soils decreased by 10.5 times in comparison to 1990. In turn, the reduction of chemical land reclamation leads to negative environmental and economic consequences. Thus, the annual shortage of crop products due to excessive soil acidity in terms of grain is more than 2 million tons, which is estimated at UAH 10-12 billion. At the same time, the results of agrochemical surveys of soils show that there is a tendency for increase of acid soils areas. Scientific novelty. The use of granular limestone has been proposed as one of the modern and highly effective measures for reclamation of acid soils, which ensures their rapid deoxidation and helps to increase crop yields by up to 30%, ensuring the payback of measures for reclamation of acid soils in the first year. It has been also established that the usage of granular forms of ameliorants eliminates technological difficulties during the use of limestone materials and reduces the cost of their application, which greatly simplifies the technology of their application both separately and in combination with other fertilizers using standard spreaders. In addition, it is possible to transport lime fertilizers over long distances, which makes them more accessible to Ukrainian farmers countrywide. Practical significance. The following directions to increase efficiency of works on chemical reclamation of acid soils were offered: provision of scientifically substantiated cycle of chemical reclamation of soils and achievement of positive balance of calcium in soils by carrying out annual liming on the area of 1,400 thousand hectares; financing of works on chemical reclamation of soils at the expense of means of the state and local budgets which sharp reduction led to actual suspension of these works; extensive use of local carbonate deposits and stimulating development of the domestic industry for the production of granular limestone fertilizers, the profitability of which is 2-2.5 times higher than traditional limestone materials. Tabl.: 8. Refs.: 17.
Key words: liming; acid soils; melioration; soil fertility; state support; granular lime fertilizers
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